Introducing Threat Intel

Threat intel 🍒 is a work I developed when I was at Yelp. It is a set of Threat Intelligence APIs that can be used by security developers and analysts for incident response. Additionally, it contains wrappers for:

  • OpenDNS Investigate API
  • VirusTotal API v2.0
  • ShadowServer API

OpenDNS Investigate API

OpenDNS Investigate provides an API that allows querying for:

* Domain categorization
* Security information about a domain
* Co-occurrences for a domain
* Related domains for a domain
* Domains related to an IP
* Domain tagging dates for a domain
* DNS RR history for a domain
* WHOIS information
    - WHOIS information for an email
    - WHOIS information for a nameserver
    - Historical WHOIS information for a domain
* Latest malicious domains for an IP

To use the Investigate API wrapper import InvestigateApi class from threat_intel.opendns module:

from threat_intel.opendns import InvestigateApi

To initialize the API wrapper you need the API key:

investigate = InvestigateApi("<INVESTIGATE-API-KEY-HERE>")

You can also specify a file name where the API responses will be cached in a JSON file, to save you the bandwidth for the multiple calls about the same domains or IPs:

investigate = InvestigateApi("<INVESTIGATE-API-KEY-HERE>", cache_file_name="/tmp/cache.opendns.json")

Domain categorization

Calls domains/categorization/?showLabels Investigate API endpoint. It takes a list (or any other Python enumerable) of domains and returns the categories associated with this domains by OpenDNS along with a [-1, 0, 1] score, where -1 is a malicious status.

domains = ["google.com", "baidu.com", "bibikun.ru"]
investigate.categorization(domains)

will result in:

{
    "baidu.com": {"status": 1, "content_categories": ["Search Engines"], "security_categories": []},
    "google.com": {"status": 1, "content_categories": ["Search Engines"], "security_categories": []},
    "bibikun.ru": {"status": -1, "content_categories": [], "security_categories": ["Malware"]}
}

Security information about a domain

Calls security/name/ Investigate API endpoint. It takes any Python enumerable with domains, e.g. list, and returns several security parameters associated with each domain.

domains = ["google.com", "baidu.com", "bibikun.ru"]
investigate.security(domains)

will result in:

{
  "baidu.com": {
    "found": true,
    "handlings": {
      "domaintagging": 0.00032008666962131285,
      "blocked": 0.00018876906157154347,
      "whitelisted": 0.00019697641207465407,
      "expired": 2.462205150933176e-05,
      "normal": 0.9992695458052232
    },
    "dga_score": 0,
    "rip_score": 0,

    ..

  }
}

Co-occurrences for a domain

Calls recommendations/name/ Investigate API endpoint. Use this method to find out a list of co-occurence domains (domains that are being accessed by the same users within a small window of time) to the one given in a list, or any other Python enumerable.

domains = ["google.com", "baidu.com", "bibikun.ru"]
investigate.cooccurrences(domains)

will result in:

{
  "baidu.com": {
    "found": true,
    "pfs2": [
      ["www.howtoforge.de", 0.14108563836506008],
    }

    ..

}

Related domains for a domain

Calls links/name/ Investigate API endpoint. Use this method to find out a list of related domains (domains that have been frequently seen requested around a time window of 60 seconds, but that are not associated with the given domain) to the one given in a list, or any other Python enumerable.

domains = ["google.com", "baidu.com", "bibikun.ru"]
investigate.related_domains(domains)

will result in:

{
    "tb1": [
        ["t.co", 11.0],
        ]

    ..

}

Domain tagging dates for a domain

Calls domains/name/ Investigate API endpoint.

Use this method to get the date range when the domain being queried was a part of the OpenDNS block list and how long a domain has been in this list

domains = ["google.com", "baidu.com", "bibikun.ru"]
investigate.domain_tag(domains)

will result in:

{
    'category': u'Malware',
    'url': None,
    'period': {
        'begin': u'2013-09-16',
        'end': u'Current'
        }

    ..

}

DNS RR history for a Domain

Calls dnsdb/name/a/ Investigate API endpoint. Use this method to find out related domains to domains given in a list, or any other Python enumerable.

domains = ["google.com", "baidu.com", "bibikun.ru"]
investigate.dns_rr(domains)

will result in:

{
    'features': {
        'geo_distance_mean': 0.0,
        'locations': [
            {
                'lat': 59.89440155029297,
                'lon': 30.26420021057129
            }
                    ],
        'rips': 1,
        'is_subdomain': False,
        'ttls_mean': 86400.0,
        'non_routable': False,
        }

    ..

}

DNS RR history for an IP

Calls dnsdb/ip/a/ Investigate API endpoint. Use this method to find out related domains to the IP addresses given in a list, or any other Python enumerable.

ips = ['8.8.8.8']
investigate.rr_history(ips)

will result in:

{
  "8.8.8.8": {
    "rrs": [
      {
        "name": "8.8.8.8",
        "type": "A",
        "class": "IN",
        "rr": "000189.com.",
        "ttl": 3600
      },
      {
        "name": "8.8.8.8",
        "type": "A",
        "class": "IN",
        "rr": "008.no-ip.net.",
        "ttl": 60
      },
    }

    ..

}

WHOIS information for a domain

WHOIS information for an email

Calls whois/emails/{email} Investigate API endpoint.

Use this method to see WHOIS information for the email address. (For now the OpenDNS API will only return at most 500 results)

emails = ["dns-admin@google.com"]
investigate.whois_emails(emails)

will result in:

{
    "dns-admin@google.com": {
        "totalResults": 500,
        "moreDataAvailable": true,
        "limit": 500,
        "domains": [
            {
                "domain": "0emm.com",
                "current": true
            },
            ..
        ]
    }
}
WHOIS information for a nameserver

Calls whois/nameservers/{nameserver} Investigate API endpoint.

Use this method to see WHOIS information for the nameserver. (For now the OpenDNS API will only return at most 500 results)

nameservers = ["ns2.google.com"]
investigate.whois_nameservers(nameservers)

will result in:

{
    "ns2.google.com": {
        "totalResults": 500,
        "moreDataAvailable": true,
        "limit": 500,
        "domains": [
            {
                "domain": "46645.biz",
                "current": true
            },
            ..
        ]
    }
}
WHOIS information for a domain

Calls whois/{domain} Investigate API endpoint.

Use this method to see WHOIS information for the domain.

domains = ["google.com"]
investigate.whois_domains(domains)

will result in:

{
    "administrativeContactFax": null,
    "whoisServers": null,
    "addresses": [
        "1600 amphitheatre parkway",
        "please contact contact-admin@google.com, 1600 amphitheatre parkway",
        "2400 e. bayshore pkwy"
    ],
    ..
}
Historical WHOIS information for a domain

Calls whois/{domain}/history Investigate API endpoint.

Use this method to see historical WHOIS information for the domain.

domains = ["5esb.biz"]
investigate.whois_domains_history(domains)

will result in:

{
    '5esb.biz':[
        {
            u'registrantFaxExt':u'',
            u'administrativeContactPostalCode':u'656448',
            u'zoneContactCity':u'',
            u'addresses':[
                u'nan qu hua yuan xiao he'
            ],
            ..
        },
        ..
    ]
}

Latest malicious domains for an IP

Calls ips/{ip}/latest_domains Investigate API endpoint.

Use this method to see whether the IP address has any malicious domains associated with it.

ips = ["8.8.8.8"]
investigate.latest_malicious(ips)

will result in:

{
    [
        '7ltd.biz',
        'co0s.ru',
        't0link.in',
    ]

    ..
}

VirusTotal API

VirusTotal provides an API that makes it possible to query for the reports about:

* Domains
* URLs
* IPs
* File hashes
* File Upload
* Live Feed
* Advanced search

To use the VirusTotal API wrapper import VirusTotalApi class from threat_intel.virustotal module:

from threat_intel.virustotal import VirusTotalApi

To initialize the API wrapper you need the API key:

vt = VirusTotalApi("<VIRUSTOTAL-API-KEY-HERE>")

VirusTotal API calls allow to squeeze a list of file hashes or URLs into a single HTTP call. Depending on the API version you are using (public or private) you may need to tune the maximum number of the resources (file hashes or URLs) that could be passed in a single API call. You can do it with the resources_per_req parameter:

vt = VirusTotalApi("<VIRUSTOTAL-API-KEY-HERE>", resources_per_req=4)

When using the public API your standard request rate allows you too put maximum 4 resources per request. With private API you are able to put up to 25 resources per call. That is also the default value if you don't pass the resources_per_req parameter.

Of course when calling the API wrapper methods in the VirusTotalApi class you can pass as many resources as you want and the wrapper will take care of producing as many API calls as necessary to satisfy the request rate.

Similarly to OpenDNS API wrapper, you can also specify the file name where the responses will be cached:

vt = VirusTotalApi("<VIRUSTOTAL-API-KEY-HERE>", cache_file_name="/tmp/cache.virustotal.json")

Domain report endpoint

Calls domain/report VirusTotal API endpoint. Pass a list or any other Python enumerable containing the domains:

domains = ["google.com", "baidu.com", "bibikun.ru"]
vt.get_domain_reports(domains)

will result in:

{
  "baidu.com": {
    "undetected_referrer_samples": [
      {
        "positives": 0,
        "total": 56,
        "sha256": "e3c1aea1352362e4b5c008e16b03810192d12a4f1cc71245f5a75e796c719c69"
      }
    ],

    ..

    }
}

URL report endpoint

Calls url/report VirusTotal API endpoint. Pass a list or any other Python enumerable containing the URL addresses:

urls = ["http://www.google.com", "http://www.yelp.com"]
vt.get_url_reports(urls)

will result in:

{
  "http://www.google.com": {
    "permalink": "https://www.virustotal.com/url/dd014af5ed6b38d9130e3f466f850e46d21b951199d53a18ef29ee9341614eaf/analysis/1423344006/",
    "resource": "http://www.google.com",
    "url": "http://www.google.com/",
    "response_code": 1,
    "scan_date": "2015-02-07 21:20:06",
    "scan_id": "dd014af5ed6b38d9130e3f466f850e46d21b951199d53a18ef29ee9341614eaf-1423344006",
    "verbose_msg": "Scan finished, scan information embedded in this object",
    "filescan_id": null,
    "positives": 0,
    "total": 62,
    "scans": {
      "CLEAN MX": {
        "detected": false,
        "result": "clean site"
      },
    }
  ..

}

URL scan endpoint

Calls 'url/scan' VirusTotal API endpoint. Submit a url or any other Python enumerable containing the URL addresses:

urls = ["http://www.google.com", "http://www.yelp.com"]
vt.post_url_report(urls)

Hash report endpoint

Calls file/report VirusTotal API endpoint. You can request the file reports passing a list of hashes (md5, sha1 or sha2):

file_hashes = [
    "99017f6eebbac24f351415dd410d522d",
    "88817f6eebbac24f351415dd410d522d"
]

vt.get_file_reports(file_hashes)

will result in:

{
  "88817f6eebbac24f351415dd410d522d": {
    "response_code": 0,
    "resource": "88817f6eebbac24f351415dd410d522d",
    "verbose_msg": "The requested resource is not among the finished, queued or pending scans"
  },
  "99017f6eebbac24f351415dd410d522d": {
    "scan_id": "52d3df0ed60c46f336c131bf2ca454f73bafdc4b04dfa2aea80746f5ba9e6d1c-1423261860",
    "sha1": "4d1740485713a2ab3a4f5822a01f645fe8387f92",
  }

 ..

}

Hash rescan endpoint

Calls file/rescan VirusTotal API endpoint. Use to rescan a previously submitted file. You can request the file reports passing a list of hashes (md5, sha1 or sha2):

Hash behaviour endpoint

Calls file/behaviour VirusTotal API endpoint. Use to get a report about the behaviour of the file when executed in a sandboxed environment (Cuckoo sandbox). You can request the file reports passing a list of hashes (md5, sha1 or sha2):

file_hashes = [
    "99017f6eebbac24f351415dd410d522d",
    "88817f6eebbac24f351415dd410d522d"
]

vt.get_file_behaviour(file_hashes)

Hash network-traffic endpoint

Calls file/network-traffic VirusTotal API endpoint. Use to get the dump of the network traffic generated by the file when executed. You can request the file reports passing a list of hashes (md5, sha1 or sha2):

file_hashes = [
    "99017f6eebbac24f351415dd410d522d",
    "88817f6eebbac24f351415dd410d522d"
]

vt.get_file_network_traffic(file_hashes)

Hash download endpoint

Calls file/download VirusTotal API endpoint. Use to download a file by its hash. You can request the file reports passing a list of hashes (md5, sha1 or sha2):

file_hashes = [
    "99017f6eebbac24f351415dd410d522d",
    "88817f6eebbac24f351415dd410d522d"
]

vt.get_file_download(file_hashes)

IP reports endpoint

Calls ip-address/report VirusTotal API endpoint. Pass a list or any other Python enumerable containing the IP addresses:

ips = ['90.156.201.27', '198.51.132.80']
vt.get_ip_reports(ips)

will result in:

{
  "90.156.201.27": {
    "asn": "25532",
    "country": "RU",
    "response_code": 1,
    "as_owner": ".masterhost autonomous system",
    "verbose_msg": "IP address found in dataset",
    "resolutions": [
      {
        "last_resolved": "2013-04-01 00:00:00",
        "hostname": "027.ru"
      },
      {
        "last_resolved": "2015-01-20 00:00:00",
        "hostname": "600volt.ru"
      },

      ..

    ],
    "detected_urls": [
      {
        "url": "http://shop.albione.ru/",
        "positives": 2,
        "total": 52,
        "scan_date": "2014-04-06 11:18:17"
      },
      {
        "url": "http://www.orlov.ru/",
        "positives": 3,
        "total": 52,
        "scan_date": "2014-03-05 09:13:31"
      }
    ],
  },

  "198.51.132.80": {

    ..

  }
}

URL live feed endpoint

Calls url/distribution VirusTotal API endpoint. Use to get a live a feed with the latest URLs submitted to VirusTotal.

vt.get_url_distribution()

Hash live feed endpoint

Calls file/distribution VirusTotal API endpoint. Use to get a live a feed with the latest Hashes submitted to VirusTotal.

vt.get_file_distribution()

Hash search endpoint

Calls file/search VirusTotal API endpoint. Use to search for samples that match some binary/metadata/detection criteria.

vt.get_file_search()

File date endpoint

Calls file/clusters VirusTotal API endpoint. Use to list simililarity clusters for a given time frame.

vt.get_file_clusters()

ShadowServer API

ShadowServer provides and API that allows to test the hashes against a list of known software applications.

To use the ShadowServer API wrapper import ShadowServerApi class from threat_intel.shadowserver module:

from threat_intel.shadowserver import ShadowServerApi

To use the API wrapper simply call the ShadowServerApi initializer:

ss = ShadowServerApi()

You can also specify the file name where the API responses will be cached:

ss = ShadowServerApi(cache_file_name="/tmp/cache.shadowserver.json")

To check whether the hashes are on the ShadowServer list of known hashes, call get_bin_test method and pass enumerable with the hashes you want to test:

file_hashes = [
    "99017f6eebbac24f351415dd410d522d",
    "88817f6eebbac24f351415dd410d522d"
]

ss.get_bin_test(file_hashes)

Installation

Install with pip

$ pip install threat_intel

Testing

Go to town with make:

$ sudo pip install tox
$ make test