This is the first crypto-problem, and it was supposed to be the easiest one. For this reason, I was expecting simple cryptographic algorithms, which turned out to be true.
The problem starts with the following text:
There's no heartbleed here. Why don't we use these ciphers?
nc 18.104.22.168 12345
Written by psifertex
Stage One: Caesar Cipher
Connecting to the Server
We start typing the netcat command in the terminal:
nc 22.214.171.124 12345
We get the following message back:
Welcome to psifer school v0.002
Your exam begins now. You have 10 seconds, work fast.
Here is your first psifer text, a famous ancient roman would be proud if you solve it.
psifer text: wkh dqvzhu wr wklv vwdjh lv vxshuvlpsoh
Time's up. Try again later.
This text gives a cipher
wkh dqvzhu wr wklv vwdjh lv vxshuvlpsoh and the hint a famous ancient roman would be proud. That's all we need to decipher it!
The famous roman is Caesar, and his cryptographic scheme is one of the simplest possible. This cipher is also known as rotation cipher, because all we do is rotating the letters by some value (the key). A modern version of it is called ROT13, meaning rotation by 13 places. This is a simple letter substitution cipher which replaces each letter with the 13th letter after it in the alphabet. In this case, we say that the key is 13.
In our problem, we don't know the key. However, there is a method to circumvent it: we can count how many times each letter appears in the text and then we use some previous knowledge about the frequency of each letter in the English words. For example, in the English language, e, t, a, o, and n are frequent letters while z or v is not. This means that we can analyze the frequency of each character to determine what's the most probable rotation key.
To count the frequency of characters in our cipher, we write a snippet that creates a counter dictionary (hash table) with all the (lowercase) characters as the dictionary's keys. Note that we could have used Python's Counter() data-structure as well. We then iterate through each character in the message, counting their frequency, and returning a sorted list of these values:
import string def frequency(msg): # Compute the word frequencies dict_freq = dict([(c,0) for c in string.lowercase]) diff = 0.0 for c in msg.lower(): if 'a'<= c <= 'z': diff += 1 dict_freq[c] += 1 list_freq = dict_freq.items() list_freq.sort() return [b / diff for (a, b) in list_freq]
Deciphering the Cipher
Using a well-known table of word frequency values, we write a snippet that does the following:
- First, for each of the 26 letters, we subtract its known frequency value from the frequency obtained from our message.
- Second, we find what is the minimum value from those subtractions. The closest value is the most probable value for the rotation key.
def delta(freq_word, freq_eng): # zip together the value from the text and the value from FREQ diff = 0.0 for a, b in zip(freq_word, freq_eng): diff += abs(a - b) return diff def decipher(msg): # Decipher by frequency min_delta, best_rotation = 20, 0.0 freq = frequency(msg) for key in range(26): d = delta(freq[key:] + freq[:key], FREQ_ENGLISH) if d < min_delta: min_delta = d best_rotation = key return cipher(msg, -best_rotation)
Once we have the key, we just plug it back to the cipher algorithm, inverting the rotation to the other side, with
cipher(msg, -best_rotation). In this cipher function, we iterate through all the character in the message, checking whether it's a letter or a special character. If it is the former case we perform the following operations:
- We start getting the integer representing the Unicode code point of the character.
- To get its position in the alphabet and we subtract it from the Unicode value of a, given by ord('a') (this is 97).
- We add the key value to it to get the (absolute) shift position.
- Now we need to remember that this cipher is a ring, i.e, adding more stuff should always lead to a spot within the 26 letters in the alphabet. That's why we apply an module operation to this number to get the relative position in the letter's table.
- Finally, we just need the value of the shift to the Unicode of a to get the position of the character in the cipher.
- Remember we are using -key, so instead of making a new cipher, we are using the same steps to rotate the cipher to the other side to recover the message.
def cipher(msg, key): # Make the cipher dec = '' for c in msg.lower(): if 'a' <= c <= 'z': dec += chr(ord('a') + (ord(c) - ord('a') + key) % 26) else: dec += c return dec
Bingo! The snippets above lead us to our first answer in this problem:
the answer to this stage is supersimple
Netcating several times can return other similar answers such as hopeyouautomate or easypeesy or notveryhard. They are all correct.
Automating the Response
To advance forward, we need to send one of the above answers to the socket. However, we only have 10 seconds to do this! It's clear that we need to automate this problem with a script.
We can do this in many ways. In Python, for example, we can use the libraries telnetlib or socket or even writing our own netcat script. We will use the former for this exploit. Let us create a telnet connection with:
from telnetlib import Telnet PORT = 12345 HOST = '126.96.36.199' tn = Telnet(HOST ,PORT)
In this case, socket reading can be done with
tn.read_until(b'psifer text: '), which reads until a given string is encountered, or
tn.read_all(), which reads all data until EOF.
To write a string to the socket we do
tn.write(mystring.encode() + b'\n'). Here, the method encode() returns an encoded version of the string, i.e a translation of a sequence of bytes to a Unicode string.
As a side note, if we had decided to use the socket library to create a TCP socket, the process would be easy as well:
s = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM) s.connect(HOST)
socket.AF_UNIX, socket.AF_INET, socket.AF_INET6 are constants that represent the address (and protocol) families. The constants
socket.SOCK_STREAM, socket.SOCK_DGRAM, socket.SOCK_RAW, socket.SOCK_RDM, socket.SOCK_SEQPACKETrepresent the socket types.
To read the socket stream we would use commands such as
s.recv(2048) and for writing, we could use
Decrypting and Sending the Answer
Now, back to our problem. After creating the telnet connection, we read whatever comes in:
tn.read_until(b'psifer text: ')
We decode and decrypt the text, and then encode it again:
msg_in1 = tn.read_until(b'\n').decode().strip() dec_msg_in1 = decipher(msg_in1) answer1 = dec_msg_in1.split()[-1].encode() + b'\n'
Finally, we send our answer to the telnet session (the same answer obtained before):
Stage Two: Offset with Special Characters
The second stage starts with the following message:
Congratulations, you have solved stage 1. You have 9 seconds left.
Now it's time for something slightly more difficult. Hint, everybody knows it's not length that matters.
Together with the hint length doesn't matter, we get the following cipher (translated as a Python string variable because of the special characters):
I'lcslraooh o rga tehhywvf.retFtelh mao ae af ostloh lusr bTsfnr, epawlltddaheoo aneviedr ose rtyyng etn aini ft oooey hgbifecmoswuut!oa eeg ar rr h.u t. hylcg io we ph ftooriysneirdriIa utyco gfl oostif sp u"+'""'+"flcnb roh tprn.o h
To crack this cipher we need to deal with special characters to find the rotation shift. We proceed with the following steps:
We start looping over the length of our message, where for each iteration we create a blank list with the size of the message. This is a bit space-expensive and it should be optimized if we needed to scale for larger problems. It's fine for our current problem.
We start a second loop, which will tell us about the shifts. This loop iterates again in the length of the message, this time adding the current character to the list we've created before and updated a pointer to the pacing value given in the first loop. Notice that we have a loop inside another, so this solution has O(n^2) runtime and it also should be optimized for larger problems.
Inside this second loop, we check whether the pacing pointer is larger than the length of the message, and if this is the case, we register it in a shift counter. The former pointer receives the value of this shift. This is the end of the second loop.
Back to the first loop, we add all the characters so far from our list into the message string. But when should we stop doing this? Until we make sure that had a rotation that produces real words. I tried a few common words, and 'you' worked just fine!
def solve2(msg): # Shift cypher, but dealing with special characters for j in range(2, len(msg)): dec_msg = ['0'] * len(msg) idec_msg, shift = 0, 0 for i in range(len(msg)): dec_msg[idec_msg] = msg[i] idec_msg += j if idec_msg > len(msg) - 1: shift += 1 idec_msg = shift dec_msg = "".join(dec_msg) if "you" not in dec_msg: continue return dec_msg
After decoding this stage's cipher we get the key for the next stage, which is then sent back through the socket:
I hope you don't have a problem with this challenge. It should be fairly straight forward if you have done lots of basic crypto. The magic phrase for your efforts is "not not wrong". For your efforts, you will get another challenge!
Stage Three: Vigenere Cipher
The next message lets us know that we are close to the end:
Congratulations, you have solved stage 2. You have 9 seconds left. Last one.
And comes with the following cipher:
MVJJN BQXKF NCEPZ WWVSH YFCSV JEEBB UVRMX HKPIE PMMVZ FOPME ZQIIU EUZZW CGHMV BKBTZ BBHVR MVTQP ENXRM HIRNB WTGDZ CFEDS TKBBW HBFDI KILCM MUUPX WUNIN PWPFJ IEZTP MVQBX ACVKN AEMPV KQXAB ZMDUD ILISV NHKBJ FCIMW HTUVR MNNGU KIFED STLLX XAOUN YVEGV BEXEI BHJNI GHXFI FQFYV VXZFE FXFFH OBVXR MVNLT NHUYY FEZWD GBKEL SGFLM LXBFO NEIOS MZHML XAJUX EIKWH YNAIK SOFLF EEKPI XLSDB PNGHV XHFON MSFOL VMNVX HIRNB XBGTF FOEUZ FZMAS NZEGL HFTPM PDNWM DVKCG WHAFE OKWXF ZIBRQ XCSJI FIMVJ EAFEK MIRXT PBHUC YEEFP MZNMP XZBDV EMMHM VFTQU ABISA EWOMZ NMPXZ BDVPL HGFWF XISSX RMPLB HFRML RHKJU IGXPO OKNHQ TYFKB BWAOS UYKXA OOZNG IXRTK IUIBT ZFOOI LCMMY WEECU FZLMF DMVWK CIHPT BTPES OXYLC HIQII UEUZZ RFKIT RZYUO IMVFT IWITB ENCEP UFFVT XVBUI KNAVH IHYCM MYWUY YETLA PJNHJ MVFGF TMGHF ONBWL HBKCV EMSBT BHJMV FCYOI EGJDH HXTAB JIVLB GUKBX JNBOP NAMGU JJNAE MRFGY GHBBH FHPLB QIIUG HHALV SRSNU FKNAE MDPVG FMZVU SYXBT QUCSM LXFJX BMSYT TVNMS LIDTY LWY
This is a Vigenere Cipher, which is basically several Caesar ciphers in sequence, with different shift values, given by a key-word. Finding these shifts when we don't know the key can be done by writing the alphabet 26 times in different rows. In this case, each alphabet is shifted cyclically to the left compared to the previous alphabet (26 Caesar ciphers).
Although we could use some online Vigenere cracker to extract the flag from this text, we will instead write a code. We use Python's library pygenere, which has the methods
crack_message() to decipher the message and
crack_codeword() to find the key (useful because we don't have the key). We then send our cipher to the following function:
def solve3(msg): key = VigCrack(msg).crack_codeword() dec_msg = VigCrack(msg).crack_message() dec_msg = dec_msg.replace(" ", "") return key, dec_msg
This will give us the key = TOBRUTE and the deciphered text. After fixing the spaces between the words, we get:
THIS TIME WE WILL GIVE YOU MORE PLAINTEXT TO WORK WITH YOU WILL PROBABLY FIND THAT HAVING EXTRA CONTENT THAT IS ASCII MAKES THIS ONE MORE SOLVABLE IT WOULD BE SOLVABLE WITHOUT THAT BUT WE WILL MAKE SURE TO GIVE LOTS OF TEXT JUST TO MAKE SURE THAT WE CAN HANDLE IT I WONDER HOW MUCH WILL BE REQUIRED LETS PUT THE MAGIC PHRASE FOR THE NEXT LEVEL IN THE MIDDLE RIGHT HERE NORMALWORD OK NOW MORE TEXT TO MAKE SURE THAT IT IS SOLVABLE I SHOULD PROBABLY JUST PUT IN SOME NURSERY RHYME OR SOMETHING MARY HADA LITTLE LAMB LITTLE LAMB LITTLE LAMB MARY HADA LITTLE LAMB WHOSE FLEEZE WAS WHITE AS SNOW I DONT WANT TO MAKE THIS HARDER THAN IT NEEDS TO BE IF YOU VE SOLVED A LOT OF SIMPLE CRYPTO CHALLENGES YOU PROBABLY ALREADY HAVE THE CODE AND WILL BREEZE RIGHT THROUGH IT IF IT HELPS MOST OF THE PLAINTEXT IS STATIC AT EACH OF THE LEVELS I M NOT A MASOCHIST THE FUNNY THING IS THAT DEPENDING ON WHICH RANDOMKEY YOU GET THAT POEM MIGHT BE EXACTLY THE RIGHT OFFSET TO SUCCESSFULLY MOUNT AN ATTACK WE LL SEE LITTLE BIT MORE LITTLE BIT MORE THERE,
Reading it carefully give us the last answer for the flag: NORMALWORD. Sweet!
If you like this solution, take a look at my exploit for this problem.
Hack all the things!